Library

Pediatric Endocrine Library

Contained below are links to pediatric endocrine scholarly materials. Review articles, practice guidelines, and key primary research materials are included in this “library”. Click on a topic to expand to subtopics, and nested sub-subtopics. Links to materials are shown in yellow. Linked materials are the products of their authors and publishers, and link inclusion herein does not constitute endorsement other than for the purpose of study and review.

  • ADRENAL CORTEX / HPA AXIS
    • HYPOADRENALISM
      • Central adrenal insufficiency
        • Chart review:: Timing low dose ACTH stimulation test Gill (JCEM 2019) pubmed doi
      • Primary adrenal insufficiency
        • Recommendations: Adrenal surveillance in adrenoleukodystrophy Regelmann (JCEM 2018) pubmed doi
        • Recommendations: Pre-hospital treatment of adrenal crisis Miller and Sarafoglou (JIMed 2020) pmc pubmed doi
        • Guideline: Primary adrenal insufficiency Bornstein PES (JCEM 2016) pmc pubmed doi
        • Clinical review: Mortality from childhood adrenal insufficiency Shilman (Pediatrics 2007) pubmed doi
      • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
        • Journal Article,Practice Guideline: CAH due to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency: Endocrine Society CPG. Speiser (JClinEndocrinolMetab 2018) pmc pubmed doi
        • Review: Steroidogensis and CAH Walt Miller (EurJEndo 2018) pubmed doi link
        • Review: 21-hydroxylase deficiency Merke / Auchus (NEJM 2020) pubmed doi link
        • Reference Ranges: expected results for endocrine tests, including ACTH stimulation tests and various forms of CAH Esoterix (self published) link
        • Review: Rare forms of CAH. Miller (EurJEndocrinol 2018) pubmed doi
    • HYPERCORTISOLISM
      • Guideline: Diagnosis of Cushing syndrome Nieman PES (JCEM 2008) pmc pubmed doi
      • Guideline: Treatment of Cushing syndrome Nieman PES (JCEM 2015) pmc pubmed doi
      • Article: Recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in youth after surgical cure of Cushing disease. Lodish (JCEM 2012) pmc pubmed doi
  • CALCIUM PHOS VitD BONES
    • CALCIUM
      • Hypocalcemia
        • Review: Hypocalcemia emergencies in children Kim (AnnPediatrEndocrinolMetab 2015) pmc pubmed doi
        • Review: Framework for workup of refractory hypocalcemia in children. Humphrey (PediatrAnn 2019) pubmed doi
        • Case Reports and Review: Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Sun (Medicine(Baltimore) 2018) pmc pubmed doi
        • Review: Primary hyperparathyroidism in youth. Roizen and M Levine (JChinMedAssoc 2012) pmc pubmed doi
      • Hypercalcemia
        • Review: Hypercalcemia in children and adolescents. Lietman and Michael Levine (CurrOpinPediatr 2010) pmc pubmed doi
        • Review: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia Lee (BestPractResClinEndocrinolMetab 2018) pmc pubmed doi
    • PARATHYROID HORMONE
      • Review: Review and suggestions for treatment of hypoparathyroidism in youth. DiMaio (ActaBiomed 2018) pmc pubmed doi
      • Case Reports and Review: Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Sun (Medicine(Baltimore) 2018) pmc pubmed doi
      • Review: Primary hyperparathyroidism in youth. Roizen and M Levine (JChinMedAssoc 2012) pmc pubmed doi
      • Consensus Statement: Diagnosis and management of pseudohypoparathyroidism. Mantovani (NatRevEndocrinol 2018) pmc pubmed doi
      • Review: Management of pseudohypoparathyroidism. Germain-Lee (CurrOpinPediatr 2019) pmc pubmed doi
    • Vitamin D
      • Clinical Review: Vit D dependent rickets Michael Levine (Frontiers Pediatrics 2020) pmc pubmed doi
    • BONES
      • Rickets
        • Clinical Review: Vit D dependent rickets Michael Levine (Frontiers Pediatrics 2020) pmc pubmed doi
        • Recommendations: Nutrition rickets: prevention and treatment Munns (JCEM 2016) pmc pubmed doi
      • Osteopenia/Osteoporosis
        • Review: A Contemporary View of the Definition and Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in Children and Adolescents. Ward (JCEM 2020) pmc pubmed doi
        • Clinical Review: Osteoporosis in cerebral palsy Ozel (Dev Med Child Neur 2016) pubmed doi
        • Clinical Review: Hormonal Contraception and Bone Health in Adolescents Bachrach (Front in Endo 2020) doi link
      • Osteogenesis imperfecta
        • Review: Management of Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Ralston (FrontEndocrinol 2019) pmc pubmed doi
      • Hypophosphatasia
        • Algorithm: Workup of low alk phos Saraff (JPeds 2016) pubmed doi
        • Review:: Monitoring asfotase alfa therapy Kishnani (MolGenetMetab 2017) pubmed doi
      • Bisphosphonates
        • Clinical review: Bisphosphonates in youth Bachrach (JCEM 2009) pubmed doi
  • THYROID
    • HYPERTHYROIDISM
      • Clinical trial: Long term methimazole for Graves Aziz (Pediatrics 2019) pubmed doi
      • Review: Management of Graves disease in children Rivkees (JEndoInvest 2016) pubmed doi
      • Practice Guideline: ATA Guidelines for Hyperthyroidism Ross (Thyroid 2016) pubmed doi
    • HYPOTHYROIDISM
      • Consensus Guidelines: Congenital Hypothyroidism: A 2020-2021 Consensus Guidelines. vanTrotsenburg (Thyroid 2021) pmc pubmed doi
      • Report: Congenital hypothyroidism: 2006 update Rose, Brown, ATA, AAP, PES (Pediatrics 2006) pubmed doi
      • Report: Congenital hypothyroidism: 2014 guidelines Leger, Eur Soc for Ped Endo (JCEM 2014) pmc pubmed doi
    • THYROID CANCER
      • Guidelines: Thyroid nodule & differentiated thyroid cancer management in youth Francis and ATA (Thyroid 2015) pmc pubmed doi
      • Update: Medullary thyroid carcinoma in MEN2 Raue (JEndoSoc 2018) pmc pubmed doi
      • Revised guidelines: Management of medullary thyroid carcinoma Wells and ATA (Thyroid 2015) pmc pubmed doi
    • IMPAIRED SENSITIVITY TO THYROID HORMONE
      • Book Chapter - Review: Impaired Sensitivity to Thyroid Hormone: Defects of Transport, Metabolism and Action Feingold (Endotext 2015) pubmed link
      • Review: Defects of Thyroid Hormone Synthesis and Action. Hannoush (EndocrinolMetabClinNorthAm 2017) pmc pubmed doi
      • Review: Reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone. Dumitrescu (BiochimBiophysActa 2013) pmc pubmed doi
      • Case Report: Thyroid hormone receptor alpha gene mutation Bochukova (NEnglJMed 2012) pubmed doi
    • Review: Drug Effects on the Thyroid. Burch (NEnglJMed 2019) pubmed doi
    • Journal Article: Thyroid function and structure are affected in childhood obesity. Radetti (JClinEndocrinolMetab 2008) pubmed doi
  • DIABETES INSIPIDUS
    • Review: Central diabetes insipidus in youth. Patti (BestPractResClinEndocrinolMetab 2020) pubmed doi
    • Review: Diabetes insipidus in infants and children. Dabrowski (BestPractResClinEndocrinolMetab 2016) pubmed doi
    • Review: Diabetes insipidus in children. Jain (JPediatrEndocrinolMetab 2016) pubmed doi
  • HYPOGLYCEMIA
    • Recommendations: Evaluation and Management of Persistent Hypoglycemia in Newborns and Youth Thornton, Stanley, Wolfsdorf, et al and PES (JPeds 2015) pubmed doi
    • Commentary: The need to evaluate hypoglycemia in newborns older than 1-2 days Stanley (JPeds 2015) pmc pubmed doi
    • Review: idiopathic ketotic hypoglycemia Drachmann (OrphanetJRareDis 2021) pubmed doi
  • DSD (Differences of Sex Development)
    • Consensus statement: DSD consensus statement PES and others (Pediatrics 2006) pubmed doi
    • Guideline handbook: DSD guidelines Accord Alliance / Consortium on DSD (self published 2006) link
    • Review: Management of 46XY DSD Wisniewski (EndocrRev 2019) pubmed doi
    • Mini-puberty of infancy
        The typical mini-puberty of infancy is biphasic..
      • Journal Article: Mini puberty and its interpretation - 1st phase peaks at ~2-3 weeks in male, a few days earlier in female infants Kurtoğlu (TurkPediatriArs 2014) pmc pubmed doi
      • Journal Article: Second phase peaks at 2-5 months. Johannsen (JClinEndocrinolMetab 2018) pubmed doi
  • DIABETES MELLITUS
    • Guidelines: Standards of diabetes care (adult & peds) AmDiabetesAssoc (Diabetes Care 2020) link
    • Guidelines: Standards of diabetes care for youth AmDiabetesAssoc 2020 (Diabetes Care 2020) pubmed doi
    • Position statement: PES position on DKA treatment in youth PES (Pediatrics 2004) pubmed doi
    • Consensus statement: ADA consensus on DKA treatment in youth Wolfsdorf (Diabetes Care 2006) pubmed doi
    • TYPE 1 DIABETES
      • Position and review: Insulin pump in very young children Eugster, PES (Pediatrics 2006) pubmed doi
    • TYPE 2 DIABETES
      • Clinical Review: Nonacidotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome in youth Zeitler (JPeds 2011) pubmed doi
      • Position statement: Use of hemoglobin A1c to diagnose type 2 diabetes in youth Kapadia, Zeitler, PES (IntJPedEndo 2012) pmc pubmed doi
    • OTHER TYPES OF DIABETES
      • Guideline: Cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD) Moran (Ped Diab 2018) pubmed doi
      • Guideline: monogenic diabetes (MODY) Hattersley et al (Ped Diab 2018) pubmed doi
      • Review: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus. Beltrand (FrontPediatr 2020) pmc pubmed doi
      • Research Article: YIPF5 mutations newly identified to cause neonatal diabetes, microcephaly and seizures DeFranco (JClinInvest 2020) pmc pubmed doi
  • REPRODUCTIVE AXIS
    • PUBERTAL DELAY
      • Review: Genetics of delayed puberty Festa (FrontEndocrinol(Lausanne) 2020) pmc pubmed doi
      • Review: Delayed Puberty. Dye (PediatrAnn 2018) pubmed doi
    • PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY
      • Clinical Trial: Comparison of detection of normal puberty in girls by a hormonal sleep test and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist test. Rosenfield (JClinEndocrinolMetab 2013) pmc pubmed doi
      • GnRH agonists as therapy
        • Consensus Review: Use of GnRH analogs in children. Carel (Pediatrics 2009) pubmed doi
        • Statement: GnRH agonists and prolonged QT PES (PES statement) link
        • Review: Use of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogs in Children: Update by an International Consortium. Krishna (HormResPaediatr 2019) pubmed doi
    • POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME
      • Consortium Update: PCOS in youth Ibáñez (HormResPaediatr 2017) pubmed doi
    • Journal Article: Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in extreme prematurity: development of reference intervals. Greaves (Pediatrics 2008) pubmed doi
  • ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA SYNDROMES
    • Guidelines: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) Thakker (JCEM 2012) pubmed doi
    • Update: Medullary thyroid carcinoma in MEN2 Raue (JEndoSoc 2018) pmc pubmed doi
    • Revised guidelines: Management of medullary thyroid carcinoma Wells and ATA (Thyroid 2015) pmc pubmed doi
    • Journal Article: Growth hormone excess in children with neurofibromatosis type-1 and optic glioma. Cambiaso (AmJMedGenetA 2017) pubmed doi
    • Journal Article: Growth hormone excess in children with neurofibromatosis type 1-associated and sporadic optic pathway tumors. Josefson (JPediatr 2011) pubmed doi
  • GROWTH DISORDERS
    • Short stature
      • Opinion: Cost-conscious growth-promoting treatment Allen (HormResPaediatr 2018) pubmed doi
      • Guideline: Growth Hormone and IGF-I Treatment in Youth Grimberg and PES (HormResPaediatr 2016) pubmed doi
      • Perspective: Short Stature in Children: A Growth Hormone Research Society International Perspective. Collett-Solberg (HormResPaediatr 2019) pmc pubmed doi
      • Editorial: Growth hormone and neoplasia Sperling and PES (JCEM 2002) pubmed doi
      • Review: Use of aromatase inhibitors in youth Shulman and PES (Pediatrics 2008) pubmed doi
      • Randomized Controlled Trial: Aromatase Inhibitors versus Growth Hormone or Combo in Pubertal Boys with Idiopathic, Short Stature. Mauras (JClinEndocrinolMetab 2016) pmc pubmed doi
      • Consensus: Silver-Russell syndrome. Wakeling (NatRevEndocrinol 2017) pubmed doi
      • Guidelines: AACE Guidelines for Management of Growth Hormone Deficiency Transition of Care to Adult Yuen (EndocrPract 2019) pubmed doi
    • Overgrowth
      • Review: Overgrowth syndromes - clinical and molecular aspects and tumour risk. Brioude (NatRevEndocrinol 2019) pubmed doi
      • Review: Overgrowth Syndromes—Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Management Manor (Front Ped 2020) doi
  • ENDOCRINE CARE FOR SELECTED POPULATIONS
    • GENETIC SYNDROMES
      • TURNER SYNDROME
        • Guideline: Clinical care of those with Turner syndrome (EurJEndo 2017 & Pediatrics 2017) pubmed doi
      • KLINEFELTER SYNDROME
        • Review: Endocrine care in Klinefelter syndrome Lizarazo (CurOpinEndoDiabObes 2019) pubmed doi
        • Viewpoint: Klinefelter disclosure to child Tremblay (Acta Paed 2016) pubmed doi
      • PRADER WILLI SYNDROME
        • Prospective cohort study: Growth hormone treatment in very young children with Prader-Willi syndrome Donze (JCEM 2018) pubmed doi
        • Review: Endocrine care in Prader-Willi syndrome Heksch (2017) pmc pubmed doi
      • DOWN SYNDROME
        • Multicenter Study: Autoimmune and non-autoimmune subclinical hypothyroidism in Down syndrome. Pepe (EurJEndocrinol 2020) pubmed doi
        • Journal Article: Early-onset autoimmunity in diabetes in Down syndrome. Aitken (DiabetesCare 2013) pmc pubmed doi
      • 22q
        • Guidelines: Managing patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Bassett (JPediatr 2011) pmc pubmed doi
        • Growth chart: 22q growth charts 22q.org (22q.org) link
      • MITOCHONDRIAL DISORDERS
        • Review: Mitochondrial disease and endocrine dysfunction. Chow (NatRevEndocrinol 2017) pubmed doi
    • CHILDHOOD CANCER SURVIVORS
      • Practice Guideline: Hypothalamic-Pituitary and Growth Disorders in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Sklar (JClinEndocrinolMetab 2018) pubmed doi
      • Review: Late endocrine effects after treatment of childhood cancer NIH (Self published) link
      • Guidelines: Long term follow up after childhood cancer (Self published, 2018) link
      • Clinical Trial: Adrenal function following acute discontinuation of glucocorticoids in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia Ahmad (PediatrHematolOncol 2019) pubmed doi
    • ENDOCRINE CARE IN GENDER DYSPHORIA
      • Practice Guideline: Practice guideline Hembree and Endocrine Society (JCEM 2017) pubmed doi
      • Letter: Letter to the editor. Laidlaw (JClinEndocrinolMetab 2019) pubmed doi
      • Comment: Response to letter. Rosenthal (JClinEndocrinolMetab 2019) pubmed doi
    • CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES
      • Guideline review: Endocrine management of menstruation in adolescents with developmental delay PES (Self published 2004) link
  • AUTOIMMUNE POLYGLANDULAR SYNDROMES
    • Journal Article: Redefined clinical features and diagnostic criteria in APECED = APS1. Ferre (JCIInsight 2016) pmc pubmed doi
  • CHILDHOOD OBESITY
    • Consensus Review: Childhood obesity. Speiser (JCEM 2005) pubmed doi
    • Guideline Review: Pediatric obesity August and EndoSociety (JCEM 2008) pmc pubmed doi
  • LIPID DISORDERS in YOUTH
    • Practice Guideline: Expert panel on cardiovascular risk reduction in youth NIH/NHLBI (Pediatrics 2011) pmc pubmed doi
    • Practice Guideline: Drug therapy of high-risk lipid abnormalities in youth McCrindle and AHA (Circulation 2007) pubmed doi
    • Statement: Genetic testing in dyslipidemia: statement from the National Lipid Association. Brown (JClinLipidol 2020) pubmed doi
  • COVID-19 AND PEDIATRIC ENDOCRINOLOGY
    • Observational trial: T1D and COVID-19: increased risk of DKA Ebekozien (DiabetesCare June 2020) pubmed doi
    • Population study: Diabetes associated with increased COVID-19, but maybe not in those with T1D under age 65. Cariou (Diabetologia May 2020) pmc pubmed doi
    • Population study: Diabetes increases risk of COVID mortality odds-ratio~2.9 for T1D and ~1.8 for T1D. However odd-ratio~0.01 for all diabetes types under age 50. UK NHS May 2020 (Self published preprint) link
    • Population study: Among those with diabetes, COVID mortality increased when HbA1c over 10% by 2.2 fold in T1D and 1.6 fold in T2D, compared to HbA1c 6.5-7% UK NHS May 2020 (Self published preprint) link
    • Statement: Relays anecdotal evidence that increased COVID risk not seen in youth with T1D International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (Self published March 2020) link
    • Observational trial: Glycemic control was surprisingly better during Italian COVID lockdown (adult T1D data) Capaldo (DiabetesCare June 2020) pubmed doi
    • Letter: No Evidence of Increased Hospitalization Rate for COVID-19 in Community-Dwelling Patients With Type 1 Diabetes. Vangoitsenhoven (DiabetesCare 2020) pubmed doi