Educational Content

The posts below are educational content created by the site author, Dr. Andrew Norris, for clinical providers wishing to learn more about pediatric endocrinology. Click on an article to view.

  1. Metabolic Acidosis – A Clinical Primer :
    • Topic: An overview of metabolic acidosis.
    • Intended Audience: residents, fellows, practitioners
    • Content Summary (click to view) : Metabolic acidosis is frequently encountered in clinical medicine. It is crucial that clinicians be able to recognize metabolic acidosis, characterize the specific type of acidosis, and assess its severity.
  2. The Most Common Cognitive Error That Physicians Make When Treating Patients with Type 1 Diabetes :
    • Topic: Managing type 1 diabetes when unable to eat.
    • Intended Audience: residents, fellows, practitioners
    • Content Summary (click to view) : Inpatient management of type 1 diabetes is challenging, especially when a patient is unable to eat. The treating physician can feel caught between two opposing adverse outcomes: hypoglycemia from too much insulin and hyperglycemia from too much glucose. These two fears present a false dichotomy that can lead to a cognitive error. This teaching piece teaches the basic principles involved in astute inpatient management of type 1 diabetes
  3. Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Tumors :
    • Topic: Hormone-secreting pituitary tumors specifically in children.
    • Intended Audience: Pediatric endocrinologists, fellows; pediatricians
    • Content Summary (click to view) : This piece is a concise review of hormone-secreting pituitary tumors and their clinical syndromes specifically as manifest in children.
  4. Endocrine Conditions that “Break the Rules” :
    • Topic: How endocrine conditions such as diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiency change physiology.
    • Intended Audience: Pediatric providers
    • Content Summary (click to view): In pediatrics and medicine we are taught various rules that help us interrogate a person’s health . However, some endocrine disorders alter normal physiology such that the usual rules no longer apply. Failure to recognize this can lead to erroneous interpretation of a person’s condition, sometimes with even fatal results. The following broken “rules” are discussed
      • Good urine output indicates that a child is well hydrated.”
      • Children and adolescents can tolerate the physical stress of fever or vomiting.”
      • Children and adolescents tolerate exercise well.”
      • Children do not experience electrolyte problems as long as renal function is normal and fluid / electrolyte intake is adequate.
      • Failure of an infant to gain weight is a feeding issue.