Medical emergencies associated with diabetes include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS), and severe hypoglycemia. DKA occurs when the body’s insulin levels are too low, allowing excessive ketone production to the point that acidosis occurs in the blood. HHS occurs when blood glucose levels rise to extremely high levels and the body becomes dehydrated causing body fluids to become concentrated to the point that brain function declines. Children with type 1 diabetes are often susceptible to the development of DKA. Although HHS can occur in children with type 1 diabetes, it is not common. Importantly, both conditions are reversible with proper medical treatment, even though both conditions can be fatal if treatment is not started promptly. Occasionally, a child with type 1 diabetes can develop both DKA and HHS simultaneously. This is a very dangerous predicament, requiring immediate and expert/judicious treatment. Dr. Parra Villasmil and Dr. Tansey from our Division, in conjunction with members of the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit team, have just published a report of such a case. In this publication, they describe the critical condition of the child on arrival to the hospital and the subsequent careful interventions that were made to resolve the two conditions. The report can be found in the journal Cureus (Pubmed link).